Experiments, lexicographically ordered

On this webpage, the experiments are ordered lexicographically by means of the most important chemical element, investigated in the experiment. All chemicals, required for the experiment are mentioned as well, so one can see at once, what is needed to perform the experiment. Compounds, mentioned in green are not really required for the experiment itself, but are needed for safe disposal or cleanup.

The webpages, marked with an asterisk (*), are fully worked out. The other webpages are not completely worked out pages, but they definitely can be used as a basis for interesting ideas.

 

  element required compound link to experiment
 

Ag

AgNO3

NaOH

NH3 (5%)

organic reductor, e.g. glucose or glycerol

Formation of a silver mirror. A shiny silver mirror is prepared from a mix of an ammoniacal silver solution and a reducing organic.

*

Ag

AgNO3

HNO3 (dilute)

CaC2 ("carbide")

Preparation of a high explosive . Acetylene gas is bubbled through an acidic solution of silver nitrate. Silver acetylide is formed under these conditions.

*

Ag, Mg

AgNO3

Mg (powder)

Water-initiated light and smoke . A mix of silver nitrate and magnesium powder is ignited with some water.

*

Ag

Na2S2O8

HNO3 (dilute)

AgNO3 (or Ag2O)

NaOH

Very high oxidation state of silver with persulfate. Silver(I) ions are oxidized to the +3 oxidation state with persulfate.

*

Hg, Co

HCl (30%)

HgCl2

NH4SCN

any water soluble cobalt(II) salt

Colorful and really remarkable chemistry. In this experiment some amazing color changes can be observed. A beautiful bright red solution is prepared from which slowly very bright blue crystals are precipitated. Beautiful contrasts are produced in this experiment.

*

Hg

HgCl2 (or Hg(NO3)2)

KI

Mercury iodide, change of color and complex formation. Mercury iodide is made and it is shown how its color changes immediately after its formation.

* Hg

HgI2

KI

AgNO3

CuCl22H2O (or sulfate)

Na2SO3

NaCl

Multiple compounds with a beautiful color, which depends on temperature . Mercury iodide and some derived compounds have beautiful colors, but even more surprising is the reversible change of color when the temperature is changed.
*

Ir

"IrCl4"

HCl (dilute)

Na2SO3

Na2S2O8

NH3 (dilute)

Iridium -- goddess of the rainbow. All colors of the rainbow can be created from a single iridium compound and a few common other reagents. Iridium has a very rich redox and coordination chemistry.

*

Mo

MoO3

ascorbic acid

NaH2PO2

Na2S2O8

H2SO4 (dilute)

NaOH

H2O2 (3% solution)

Colorful compounds of molybdenum. This experiment demonstrates the very interesting and colorful, but also rather incompletely understood chemistry of molybdenum in aqueous solution. All colors of the rainbow can be produced with molybdenum in aqueous solution.

*

Nb

Nb (sheet or stick)

HCl (10%)

NaF

HNO3 (≥ 50 %)

NaOH

Coloration of metallic niobium by means of electrolysis . Niobium metal is used as anode in an electrolysis setup. The metal is covered by an oxide layer. Quantum effects give beautiful colors to the metal with thin oxide layer.

*

Re

Re (metal powder)

HNO3 (≥ 50 %)

HCl

Zn

SnCl22H2O

C6H8O5Na (sodium L-ascorbate)

NaOH

K2S2O5

NaBH4

Rhenium chemistry. Rhenium is dissolved in concentrated nitric acid, giving a solution of perrhenic acid. This solution is used as a starting point for several redox experiments.

*

Ru

Ru (metal powder)

bleach

NaOH

HCl (dilute)

H2SO4 (dilute)

K2S2O8

Zn

Na2SO3

Ruthenium chemistry. Ruthenium metal is dissolved in household bleach, giving a solution, containing ruthenate(VI) ion. This solution is used as a starting point for a large set of experiments, exploring the rich and colorful aqueous chemistry of this element.

 

 

   

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